The Pet Tree House - Where Pets Are Family Too : Determining the Best Age at Which to Spay or Neuter a Dog

Friday, December 9, 2016

Determining the Best Age at Which to Spay or Neuter a Dog

In many parts of the world, due to cultural or economic prohibitions, bitches and dogs are not spayed or castrated unless they have reproductive tract disease. However, in the United States, virtually all bitches and dogs are rendered sterile by surgery at some point in their life. This better allows for reproduction control in animals no longer capable of or not considered desirable for breeding, and eliminates behaviors and physical changes related to presence of reproductive hormones that dog owners find objectionable. The surgeries most commonly performed are ovariohysterectomy (removal of the uterus and both ovaries), commonly called spaying, and castration (removal of both testes and the associated epididymes). Castration is commonly also called neutering, although that term most correctly can be used for surgery of either gender. Collectively, these surgeries can be referred to as gonadectomy, removal of the gonads or reproductive organs.

Removal of the ovaries eliminates secretion of the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Removal of the testes eliminates secretion of the hormone testosterone. Elimination of these hormones obviously leads to decreases in behaviors and physical changes associated with their secretion, such as heat behavior, swelling of the vulva, and estrous bleeding in bitches, and mounting and roaming in dogs. However, reproductive hormones have effects on other tissues in the body and removal of those hormones may inadvertently impact those systems negatively. Other, less obvious, hormone changes also occur after gonadectomy, including persistent elevation in hormones that control the secretion of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. Whether these other hormone changes affect other systems positively or negatively often is unclear.

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